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Organ growing Part 3

Light

American scientists from Yale University under the leadership of Laura Niklason raised in the laboratory light (for the donor extracellular matrix).

The matrix was filled with epithelial cells of the lung and the inner lining of blood vessels taken from other species. With the help of cultivation in the bioreactor, the researchers were able to grow new lungs, which are then transplanted to multiple rats.

Organ function properly for different species from 45 minutes to two hours after transplantation. However, after that, the blood vessels of the lungs have begun to form clots. In addition, researchers have documented leak small amounts of blood in the lumen of the organ. However, the researchers were the first to demonstrate the potential of regenerative medicine for lung transplantation.

The intestines

A group of Japanese researchers from the Medical University of Nara under the leadership of Yoshiyuki Nakajima has managed to create a piece of intestine from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

Its functional features, structure muscle nerve cells correspond to the normal intestine. For example, he can contract to move food.

Pancreas

Researchers from Israeli Technion Institute, working under the guidance of Professor Levenberg Shulamit, has developed a method of growing pancreatic tissue containing secretory cells surrounded by a three dimensional network of blood vessels.

Transplantation of such tissue of mice with diabetes led to a significant decrease in the levels of glucose in the blood of animals.

The thymus

Researchers at the University of Connecticut Health Center (USA) has developed a method for in vitro directed differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (HESC) in progenitor cells of the epithelium of the thymus (PET), which in vivo differentiate into cells of the thymus and restored its normal structure.

Prostate

Scientists Cowin, Professor Gail Risbridger and doctor of Rhenium Taylor from the Melbourne Institute of medical research, Monash, became the first person using embryonic stem cells to grow human prostates in the body of the mouse.

Ovary

A group of specialists under the direction of Sandra Carson of Brown University managed to grow the first egg in the body created in the lab: has made its way from the stage of "young Grafova bubble" to full adulthood.

Penis, urethra

Researchers from the Institute for regenerative medicine Wake forest (NC, USA) under the direction of Anthony Atala managed to grow and successfully transplanted penises rabbits. After surgery, the function of the penis has recovered, rabbits inseminated females had offspring.

Scientists from Wake forest University in Winston Salem, North Carolina, grew up the urethra from the own tissues. In the experiment they helped five teenagers to restore the integrity of damaged channels.

Eye, cornea, retina

Biologists from the University of Tokyo implanted in the eye socket of a frog, from which it was removed eyeball, embryonic stem cells. Then, the eye socket filled in a special nutrient medium, providing cell nutrition. After a few weeks of embryonic cells developed into a new eyeball. And recovered not only the eyes but vision. New eyeball together with the optic nerve and feeding arteries, completely replacing the old organ.

Scientists from Sahlgrenska Academy in Sweden (The Sahlgrenska Academy) for the first time successfully cultivated stem cells from human cornea. This will help to avoid a long wait, a donor cornea.

Researchers at the University of California, Irvine, working under the leadership of Hans Keirstead, grown from stem cells in the laboratory eight layer retina that will help in the formulation ready for transplantation retinas for the treatment of leading blinding diseases, like retinitis pigments and macular degeneration. Now they check the possibility of transplantation of such of the retina in animal models.

Nervous tissue

Researchers at the Center for developmental biology RIKEN, Kobe, Japan, under the leadership of Yoshiki Sasai has developed a method of growing the pituitary gland from stem cells successfully implanted in mice. The problem of creating two types of tissue, scientists have decided affecting murine embryonic stem cells substances that create an environment similar to the one in which the formed pituitary of the developing embryo, and provides abundant supply of cells with oxygen. In the result, the cells formed three dimensional structure, similar in appearance to the pituitary, containing a set of endocrine cells, secreting hormones.

Scientists of the laboratory of cell technology state medical Academy has managed to grow a neural network, in fact, a fragment of the brain.

They have grown neural network for special matrices multi electrode substrates, which allow you to remove the electrical activity of these neurons at all stages of growth.

An overview of publications shows that there are already significant advances in the use of organs growing to treat people not only simple tissues, such as skin and bones, but also quite complex organs such as the bladder or trachea. Technology is growing more complex organs (heart, liver, eyes, etc.) is practiced on animals. In addition to the use in transplantation, such organs can be, for example, for experiments, replacing some of the experiments on laboratory animals, or for the needs of art (as did the above mentioned John. Vacanti).

Every year in the field of growing new organs appear results. According to forecasts of scientists the development and implementation of technology of growing complex organs a matter of time and it is likely that in the coming decades, technology will be developed so that the growing complex organs will be widely used in medicine, replacing the most common method of transplantation from donors.

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