Ancient technologies Part 2
At now assembled an operating version with the mechanism, and this can be displayed at the countrywide archaeological Museum at Athens along with also the Western personal computer Museum at Montana, USA. The research from this Antikythera mechanism remains concerted job at this college of Cardiff, the Athens countrywide Museum and a lot of different scientific associations. Carry on archaeological focus onto the mess, specifically, about 21 oct 2005 it had been declared that detected several lost regions of the mechanism.
Scientists think that the Antikythera mechanism can be really a mechanical pc to figure out the movement of planets. The most recent experiments reveal that the mechanism working with a exceptional gear using a homeless middle of spinning, has been competent to simply take into consideration the elliptical temperament of the orbit of this sky for several million years earlier Johannes Kepler.
Yet more, the puzzle of technology: to generate this type of precise apparatus which, the truth of processing of specifics combined together with the unmanned clock of modernity, demanded not only theoretical understanding of mechanisms, but and also to keep up the maximum production expectations. Imagine programs are offered into this early masters to its creation of this an exact gears and bottoms?
It is known that for the treatment of solid but brittle material it is impossible to apply excessive force. The tool it is desirable to have a large margin of safety. Silicon axes to hew wood or soft limestone, but here the solid slate, and especially granite or basalt, they render it impossible.
Soft copper or even bronze will hardly help in the treatment of such hard rocks. It's one thing to cut the granite blocks so called steps away saw when under mild blade, such as copper, is supplied quartz sand with water. Other work with curved surfaces.
Unique in this regard, the vases are made of igneous rock called diorite (often underlain with granite). Experts estimate the time of their manufacture 3800-3100 years BC, more than five thousand years. However, the vases, such as this bear the traces of high quality surface finish. After a thousand years after the vases, the Egyptians learned how to make diorite and complex sculptures. It is not clear what instrument was used by the ancient Egyptians, not just the body of the vase from the outside, but gently removing it from her material, making it quite thin. No shock methods are not valid diorite, though strong, but fragile.
Another example is the alabaster vases and plates. The word "alabaster" in relation to antiquity understand calcite, or chemically calcium carbonate. This material is of sedimentary origin may be the most bizarre painting. It is quite easy to be processed metal tools, however, to achieve high quality processing of the necessary tool of durable materials. We don't know what it was, but the result of the work of the ancient stone cutters came to us in the form of plates and vases.
Diorite vase (3800-3100 BC), a dish of alabaster, alabaster vase (it's not too late 2600 BC)
These products date back to the era of the third dynasty (Pharaoh Djoser). For specialist materials is surprising the surface quality and thickness of the dishes and vases component only a few millimeters. Alabaster, calcite, very fragile, easy to break during processing, however, remained quite entire products with high quality surface treatment.
All of these examples have one thing in common: we don't understand how our ancestors created their own technological methods, and to transfer knowledge. To learn how to handle the bronze of the necessary quality, you need to handle it. No single insight is not enough to create technology ultra slim gilding. You can't just pick a random subject and start to sharpen vases of hard stone. It's not one generation it is obvious that the knowledge accumulated from master to master over hundreds of years. We can only speculate that they knew and were our ancestors.
However, the collapse of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Middle ages put an end to the long period of human sustainable development. Many technologies have been lost, as in the case of gilding, probably in the IX century it was already known units, and then it was forgotten completely.
Example of disappearing knowledge and understanding of the meaning of their use is threefold mysterious ancient Egyptian vase of the Prince of Saba, which archaeologists refer to the 3100-3000 BC. She was discovered by Walter emery in 1936, approximately 1.7 km to the North of the pyramid of Djoser. The purpose of this strange object, reminiscent of a fan or an active element of the mixer, is still unclear. It is important that it is made of fragile slate completely unclear technology (there are many hypotheses, but no common). Why was there such difficult to manufacture the device or it was just a fashion designer jewelry is unclear.
What was it? Fan, mixer or a fashion designer home decoration?
Ancient Egypt, experiencing the UPS and downs, however, was able to transfer much of their knowledge of Ancient Greece, and already she is Great Rome. Knowledge has been of unquestionable value, and it is understood all rulers of the time they increase the competitiveness of small entities, at the level of cities policies and small States.
Used that knowledge, and the Roman Empire, which, however, in the III century was plunged into political and economic crisis. This crisis called "crisis of the III century", is not formally referred to the science, but, according to some researchers, in fact, was the defeat of the centuries old classical civilization as the civilization of cities. Politically this has led to the subordination of personal interests to the interests of the state, which has not been so interested in the progress is rather in the preservation of the situation. The results of the stagnation was the fall of Rome and the onset of the "dark ages."
This sad experience is worth remembering now with all our brilliant technology can also disappear very quickly, if we go one way or another to a situation where the need will disappear in the competition. Therefore, the discovery of archeologists remind us about the possible future, which, in General, I would like to avoid.