History of Engineering
A long history of the engineering development from ancient Egyptian pyramids to the rise of computers
No doubt steel is a material very good. But it has several drawbacks. First, the steel rusts; secondly melted. If the frame from the action of temperature begins to soften, and it is at this moment pushing a huge load of overlying floors, it is, of course, a direct path to the accident. There is a third drawback of steel is quite expensive.
But the impetus to her becoming not only the emergence of methods for the industrial production of steel, but the appearance of the rolling profile I beam in the form of the letter "H" laid on its side. This is important because any box like structure has great strength, comparable to the strength of a solid structure, but it is much easier for her.
But perhaps the most common type of arch in our architecture is the dome arch, turned around its own vertical axis by 180 degrees. It's good to show the example of the Pantheon, which was held, probably the longest record in the history of mankind: the passage of a width of 43 meters nobody could beat for 1,300 years until, until it was built the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore.
Today we will go on an exciting historical journey to try to understand what the milestones determined the development progress of engineering and architecture. And I will speak as a lawyer engineering and will prove that no evolution of architecture, but there are the evolution of the engineering that led to the change of architectural forms.
Of course, the routing and the creation of a framework for pavement engineering problems is not exhaustive. The construction of roads was in constant struggle with the terrain. Sometimes the road is raised on embankment, sometimes, on the contrary, had to cut through passages in the rocks. Rivers threw bridges, and in the mountains, if you had the opportunity, paving the tunnels.
Many Roman roads have survived to the present day, and this is the best evidence that their construction was approached thoroughly and with all due diligence. In other places the time didn't spare the creations of the ancient builders, but where once marched the legions of the paved modern highway.
These paths it is easy to find on the map highway, running along the route of the Roman, generally almost perfect straightness. Which is not surprising: any "hook" would lead to a serious loss of time for the Roman troops, moving mostly on foot.
It is hard to believe, but even in the twilight of antiquity, more than a thousand years ago, it was possible to travel from Rome to Athens or from Spain to Egypt, almost all the time remaining on the highway with a firm covering. For seven centuries the Romans have entangled the entire Mediterranean world the territories of the three parts of the world high quality road network with a total length of two of the earth's equator.