What does Bt mean in biology?
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a species of bacteria that lives in soil. It makes proteins that are toxic to some insects when eaten, but not others. The proteins are not toxic to humans because, like all mammals, we cannot activate them.
What is the nature of Bt toxin?
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells.
What are the common pests of maize?
Mashwani (1989) reported cutworm, army worm, earworm, grasshopper and aphids as the pests of maize in swat. These insects cause huge losses in maize crops. According to Khan (1967) the annual losses of maize stem-borer in maize crop run into million of rupees.
What is Bt in agriculture?
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a group of soil microbes that are used to control certain insect pests. Each type of Bt makes a unique protein that is toxic to some insects, but not all. Some plants, such as corn, have been genetically engineered to protect themselves by making their own Bt proteins.
What is Bt for pest control?
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a natural occurring, soil-borne bacteria that has been used since the 1950s for natural insect control. It consists of a spore, which gives it persistence, and a protein crystal within the spore, which is toxic.
How do you mix Bt?
Mix 2 fl oz per 3 gallons of water (4 tsp per gallon) for a hand sprayer and apply to all plant foliage to cover an area of 1,000 square feet. Apply at first sign of infestation and repeat at weekly intervals when needed to maintain control.
What are Bt proteins?
What are Bt proteins? Bt stands for the naturally occurring bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Bt lives in the soil and is found all over the world. Some types of Bt produce a protein crystal that is toxic to insects. These protein crystals have been used in organic farming for over 50 years to control insects.
What is maize insect?
The first, known as early maize, is planted with the onset of the early rains from March/April to June/early July (early planting season). The second, known as late maize is planted from late July/August to late October/early November (late planting season). However, most farmers prefer the early planting season .
What is best insecticide for maize?
Apply any one of the following insecticides:
- Methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha.
- Carbofuran 3%CG 33.3 kg/ha.
- Dimethoate 30%EC 1155 ml/ha.
- Methyl demeton 25% EC 1000 ml/ha.
- Phorate 10%CG 10 kg/ha.
What is Bt solution?
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a microbial pesticide that illustrates how natural pesticides can be safe and effective for the gardener. Microbial diseases kill insects much the way they do humans. The pathogens that cause these diseases often affect only a specific host, or group of insects, and don’t attack others.
What insecticide has Bt?
Bt israelensis (Bt-i) – Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis. Bt-i is a highly specific biological pesticide for use against mosquito, black fly and fungus gnat larvae.
How often do you apply Bt?
Apply Multiple Doses: Bt degrades quickly in sunlight and only lasts about a week or so. Apply as soon as you spot an infestation, and reapply every week if the caterpillars return. Use Bt Only When Needed: To help reduce the buildup of resistance to Bt, use it only if absolutely necessary.
How do you mix a Bt spray?
What is Bt toxin used for?
It is used to kill beetles and the larvae of mosquitoes, black flies, and moths. Bt is also toxic to nematodes. Bt has been registered for use in pesticides by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) since 1961.
What insecticide contains Bt?
What is Bt pest control?
About B.t. B.t. has been used safely for over 30 years to control insects in the United States, Canada, and other parts in the world. B.t. operates through a well-known protein mechanism that causes toxicity in caterpillars (i.e. insect larvae). This mechanism is not known to be present in humans or other mammals.
What is the best chemical for armyworms?
The best chemical treatment for Armyworms is Bifen LP and Reclaim IT. Conduct a full broadcast of both products on your lawn and garden to achieve control.
How do you make a Bt spray?
Mix 2 fl oz per 3 gallons of water (4 tsp per gallon) for a hand sprayer. Apply at first sign of infestation and repeat at weekly intervals when needed to maintain control. Apply to thoroughly cover all foliage surfaces of shade trees and ornamentals for control.
What product contains Bt?
Currently, Bt is found in over 130 registered pesticide products. Bt products are used on crops and ornamental plants. They are used in greenhouses, non-residential buildings, in aquatic settings, and in aerial applications. Common products include sprays, dusts, granules, concentrates, and pellets.
How do you use Bt spray?
How to Apply Bt
- Apply Bt Thoroughly: In order for Bt to work, the caterpillar has to eat it.
- Apply Bt Carefully: Be sure to limit your spraying to the affected plants, so that you only target the problem caterpillars.
- Give Bt Time to Work: Bt takes several days to work, so be patient.
Which is the best pesticide for maize?
Chemical control of eyespot has proven effective in Maize Growers Association trials. Fungicide mixes such as Comet (Pyraclostrobin) or Quilt Xcel (Azoxystrobin + propiconazole) have been shown to give six weeks protection and delay the eyespot infection.
How do you control armyworms in maize?
Before spraying insecticides, verify if there are a large number of armyworms in the field. For control, application of insecticides like Alpha-cypermethrin (e.g. Fastac) and chlorpyriphos (e.g. Tifón) is recommended at 20 to 40 ml per 20 liters of water. Application should be done when plants show 3-6 leaves.
What are the most destructive pests of maize?
8. Maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) • Most destructive pests of maize and sorghum. • Its caterpillar damage maize and sorghum by boring into the stems, cobs or ear.
What is maize stem borer?
Maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) • Most destructive pests of maize and sorghum. • Its caterpillar damage maize and sorghum by boring into the stems, cobs or ear.
How do caterpillars damage maize and sorghum?
• Its caterpillar damage maize and sorghum by boring into the stems, cobs or ear. • The grown up caterpillar are about 20-25 mm long and dirty greyish white with black head and four brownish longitudinal stripes on the back.
What is the life cycle of a maize moth?
Life cycle: • The insect breeds actively from March- April to October. • The rest of the year it remains in hibernation as full grown larva in maize stubble, stalks or unshelled cobs. • The larva pupate sometime in March and emerge as moths in the end of that moth or in early April.