What is a normal left ventricular?
A normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ranges from 55% to 70%. An LVEF of 65%, for example, means that 65% of the total amount of blood in the left ventricle is pumped out with each heartbeat. Your EF can go up and down, based on your heart condition and how well your treatment works.
What is ventricular torsion?
Torsion of the left ventricle (LV) is the wringing motion of the ventricle around its long axis induced by contracting myofibers in the LV wall (1). During initial isovolumic contraction, the apex and the base both rotate in a counterclockwise direction (2) when viewed from apex to base.
Why is ventricular so important?
The left ventricle is an integral part of the cardiovascular system. Left ventricular contraction forces oxygenated blood through the aortic valve to be distributed to the entire body. With such an important role, decreased function caused by injury or maladaptive change can induce symptoms of the disease.
What is a ventricular mass?
Left Ventricular Mass* Left ventricular (LV) mass is the weight of the left ventricle, typically estimated using echocardiography, and is thought to represent the cumulative effect of blood pressure on the heart. It is closely related to body size, greater in men than in women, and increases with age.
What is a good ejection fraction by age?
A normal ejection fraction range is between 52 and 72 percent for men and between 54 and 74 percent for women. An ejection fraction that’s higher or lower may be a sign of heart failure or an underlying heart condition.
What causes Torsades de Pointes?
Common causes for torsades de pointes include drug-induced QT prolongation and less often diarrhea, low serum magnesium, and low serum potassium or congenital long QT syndrome. It can be seen in malnourished individuals and chronic alcoholics, due to a deficiency in potassium and/or magnesium.
How does cardiac torsion affect stroke volume?
Specifically, the computer model predicted torsion-induced stroke volume increases from 13.1 to 14.4 mL (9.9%) while actual stroke volume in a pig heart of similar size and degree of dysfunction increased from 11.1 to 13.0 mL (17.1%).
What is the drug of choice for ventricular fibrillation?
Epinephrine is the first drug given and may be repeated every 3 to 5 minutes. If epinephrine is not effective, the next medication in the algorithm is amiodarone 300 mg. Defibrillation and medication are given in an alternating fashion between cycles of 2 minutes of high-quality CPR.
What drugs can cause ventricular fibrillation?
The following drug classes may cause monomorphic ventricular tachycardia: anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, anticancer drugs, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anti-manic medications, antiplatelet, antipsychotic, beta agonists, ergot derivatives, herbs, cocaine, inotropes, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, sympathomimetics.
What does an increase in left ventricular mass mean?
Summary: Elevated left ventricular mass, known as left-ventricular hypertrophy, is a stronger predictor of coronary artery disease-related death and heart failure than coronary artery calcium score, according to a new study.
What is the difference between torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation?
During Torsades de Pointes, your provider can see a specific pattern of ventricular tachycardia that looks like twisting points or peaks (which is what the name means in French) on an electrocardiogram (EKG). Torsades de Pointes can lead to ventricular fibrillation, which can be deadly.
What is the drug of choice for torsades de pointes?
Intravenous magnesium sulfate, a relatively new mode of therapy for torsade de pointes, was proven to be extremely effective and is now regarded as the treatment of choice for this arrhythmia.
How does EDV affect stroke volume?
In a typical heart, the EDV is about 120 mL of blood and the ESV about 50 mL of blood. The difference in these two volumes, 70 mL, represents the SV. Therefore, any factor that alters either the EDV or the ESV will change SV. For example, an increase in EDV increases SV, whereas an increase in ESV decreases SV.
What is the first line treatment for ventricular fibrillation?
If the patient remains in ventricular fibrillation, pharmacological treatment should begin. Epinephrine is the first drug given and may be repeated every 3 to 5 minutes. If epinephrine is not effective, the next medication in the algorithm is amiodarone 300 mg.
What is the most common cause of ventricular fibrillation?
Ventricular fibrillation is most commonly caused by the following: Heart disease. Heart attack or chest pain (angina). Diseases that change the structure of the heart by making its walls thicker or weaker.
How is left ventricular mass treated?
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These medications widen blood vessels to lower blood pressure, improve blood flow and decrease the heart’s workload.
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
- Calcium channel blockers.
- Beta blockers.
Does CoQ10 improve ejection fraction?
A meta-analysis showed that CoQ10 resulted in an improvement in ejection fraction of 3.7% (95%CI 1.59-5.77) and the mean increase in cardiac output was 0.28 L/minute (95%CI 0.03-0.53). In a subgroup analysis, studies with patients not taking ACE inhibitors found a 6.7% increase in ejection fraction.