The history of engineering revolutions Part 1
Today we will go on an exciting historical journey to try to understand what the milestones determined the development progress of engineering and architecture. And I will speak as a lawyer engineering and will prove that no evolution of architecture, but there are the evolution of the engineering that led to the change of architectural forms.
The first dwellings that began to build people, getting out of the cave that had the shape of a tent. At its base were all borrowed from nature shaped frame. He was uncomfortable and severely limited opportunities for further development, almost not allowing the buildings to rise or up, or sideways.
Therefore, what can be called the first engineering revolution, was connected with the emergence of the framework in the form of the letter "P" the so called post and beam system. This revolution is the most entrenched, since so far 99% of all buildings are constructed in the form of a modification post and beam system. But we associate it primarily with antiquity.
Tepee the traditional movable dwelling of the nomadic Indians of the Great plains is a good example of a structure with neck frame.
What do you think, and where does the rhythm of the ancient colonnade? Why columns are so often rather than two or ten times less? The main reason lies in the fact that beams used stone. Let's see: if we take a Board, put the ends on two feet and stand on it, it will SAG. And the stone on the bend is bad, it breaks. The distance between the columns, the marble beam which is guaranteed to withstand three or four meters. Hence, taken the rhythm of the colonnade, which the Greeks managed to spread so that he became regarded as a classic, is very correct. But all of these proportions, I think, is due to engineering reasons. In addition, the Greeks are well known to us their desire for beauty.
Therefore, the joint areas of the columns and beams they always gave a finished look, trying to somehow draw. Hence arose the famous ancient order system not that other, as attempt to artistically decorate a place where the beam rests on the column. But we always have to make allowances for the fact that aesthetics are at all times could be different. And if we are now accustomed to any particular rectangular section beams and columns, then it could seem somewhat weird.
Stonehenge is one of the earliest examples of the use of post and beam system. The Parthenon, built in 447 BC, the monument of ancient architecture a vivid demonstration of classic antique Colonnade.
As I said, post and beam system has one big drawback the stone works in bending, and thus restricts the amount of stairs. So the next revolution connected with the advent of this design, where the engineers managed to get the stone to work for him for the only effective kind of stress or compression. And this construction is called the arch.
It is believed that the arch was invented in Ancient Rome. Perhaps they were known before in Ancient Mesopotamia and Mesopotamia but that the Romans were the most good distributors. They smashed them all over the world and thus approved its right to be called inventors of the arch. Therefore it is often called a Roman arch.
The arch of Constantine is a three span arch, located in Rome between the Colosseum and the Palatine hill, on the ancient Via Triumphalism. Built in the year 315.
The stones used in the arch, are small, so bending they do not work and put pressure on each other and compressed. In the end, the stone, of course, still crack, but the load it can withstand is still fairly large. However, all are known to have to pay. In this case, getting rid of bending, we pay that in the heel of the nodes we have the force of horizontal thrust. You could even say that the whole history of engineering, from antiquity to the middle ages at least and maybe even later, is the story of the struggle with horizontal spacers.
The arches in the set was used by the Romans in the construction of bridges and aqueducts. To see the aqueduct, not have to go to Ancient Rome. In there are single aqueduct. It turns out that many of the building upon closer inspection are simply a set of arches. For example, the Colosseum is a few arcades set on top of each other, and a few stacked on top of each concentric wall composed of arches.
The Pont du Gard is the tallest surviving Roman aqueduct. Spans the Gardon river in France.
But we, people, accustomed to not arch in pure form, and the arch. The basis of any set that overlaps all the parts of the temples up to the XVIII century, is an arch. The simplest arch is called with or semi cylindrical. It looks like a half cylinder, and in fact, strongly elongated arch. If we take the two halves of the cylinder, cross them and take out the Central petals, you get the groin.
If we cross two semi cylinders, will cut off all the excess, and the Central petals will leave (the petals is not that other as the segments of the crossed cylinders), we get cloistered vault. The serried arches characteristic of architecture. They can be seen in the chambers of the Romanov boyars, the wards of the English court. Vaults often used in the construction of basements, but the example of the cross can serve as the Golden canopy of the faceted chamber.