Limitless clean energy Part 1
Almost two thirds of global greenhouse gas emissions accumulate in the Earth's atmosphere by burning fossil fuels coal, oil and gas. With 80% of energy obtained by man is produced today from fossil fuels.
Even in Norway, a country with well-developed hydropower, more than half of the energy consumed is produced from hydrocarbon sources. Fossil fuels used in industry, transportation industry, heat homes, and, last but not least, to maintain the oil installations offshore.
Renewable energy produces energy from clean, inexhaustible sources. Their use does not lead to the accumulation of harmful pollution that contributes to global warming. As long as we have sunlight, wind and water, we will have access to the powerful energy contained in these sources. Clean energy from the sun, wind and water the Foundation of future energy, energy based on the "zero emissions".
But unlike the developed industrialized Nations are poorer countries have to rely on a constant supply of energy in order to provide the public at least a minimum standard of living. The task today is to help these countries maintain stable economic growth with renewable energy.
The transition to "green" energy, including in developing countries, should be our common goal. To achieve this, we need to develop new technologies and create mechanisms that will encourage the development of renewable energy. It is necessary that States how the poor and rich became more profitable to invest in clean energy sources, then we will be able gradually to abandon "dirty" fossil fuel energy.
Offshore wind farms
The construction of offshore wind turbines that is, wind turbines located in the sea or ocean, which provides special benefits. First, the winds blowing over the sea or ocean, are characterized by a greater strength and constancy, and secondly ourselves to the wide sea allows to use wind energy more efficiently than land after all, at least 70% of the earth's surface is covered by seas. Offshore wind energy is, however, also difficulties. Today they are mainly associated with greater costs due to the imperfections of existing technologies.
On the Eastern coast of great Britain, is now being built offshore wind farm on 88 turbines installed on the seabed. The project Sheringham shoal is being developed jointly with two Norwegian companies Statkraft and Statoil. The wind farm is expected to be operational in 2011 and they produced electricity should be enough to provide electricity to 220 thousand homes in Norfolk.
The Sheringham shoal not the most ambitious undertaking when compared with those wind power projects that the UK is planning to expand from its shores. In those areas which the British authorities now withdrawn for the construction of wind turbines, needs to concentrate wind farms with a total capacity of up to 25 thousand megawatts. It is a thousand times more than the energy that gives launched this year in Wales, the first onshore wind farm, built by Statkraft in the UK.
Apparently, the UK and Germany, will become in the near future leaders in the development of wind energy in the North sea. The two countries are actively investing in wind energy by providing grants for project development of offshore wind farms. The shallow areas of the North sea create ideal conditions for the construction of stationary wind power plants, which can be mounted directly on the seabed. More deep water off the coast of Norway's future in floating wind turbines. However, their construction required more sophisticated technologies, whose development up to a commercially competitive level is expected only after 10-20 years.
At the end of September 2009 earned turbine pilot Hywind wind turbine conducted to the shore cable was supplied with electricity the world's first mobile sea of wind turbines. Test station Hovind, is an experienced wind farm, built by Statoil and drifting off the coast of Norway in the North sea will be conducted within two years and must demonstrate the possibility of construction and use of such installations on an industrial scale.
By 2020, European countries should significantly increase production of electricity from alternative sources, and it can be assumed that 50% of this growth occurring in wind energy. Scotland and Norway show the highest potential for the development of offshore wind. So, the Norwegian company Enova is a state owned enterprise, working on projects of environmentally friendly energy policy under the auspices of the Ministry of energy, predicts that the volume of potentially recoverable energy offshore wind in Norway amount to 14 thousand terawatts. It's almost as much electricity as is produced now by all power plants in the world combined!
Not all the projects proposed today in the wind industry, can be called perfect from the point of view of environmental performance or economic attractiveness, but the fact that the wind energy potential is huge no doubt.